Rather it shares with them a sense of humorous reflection both that the narrative is a fiction, but of the best, that is to say the most relevant and absorbing kind. It is, in every sense, being brought to life through the collaborative reading of a carefully and thoughtfully written work of literature, reflecting consummately on the real existential dilemmas of life as it is being experienced in and through all the detail of the present particularities of the text. This intratextual device is sustained as Hepburn and Hanele await the motor car at the conclusion of their expedition,.
There were three Jews from Vienna: and the girl had a huge white woolly dog, as big as a calf, and white and woolly and silly and amiable as a toy. The men of course came patting it and admiring it, just as men always do, in life and in novels. And the girl, holding the leash, posed and leaned backwards in the attitudes of heroines on novel-covers.
She said the white woolly monster was a Siberian steppe-dog. Alexander wondered what the steppes made of such a wuffer. And the three Jews pretended they were elegant Austrians out of popular romances. Both ways of sensitising are also proper handlings of the text in requiring critical reflection on it through, and as representation of, the concrete, particular experiences of class. I want to demonstrate this by drawing on the work of Raymond Williams whose reflexive formulations of class seem to me clearly to resonate with the literary and literary critical instances I have given.
He is concerned to represent the meaning of the experience of class as the basis for its sense and critical adequacy as an analytical concept, and in doing so to reject tendencies in normative social scientific analyses of class to subsume stratifying practices in social interaction within a priori concepts. Williams writes of class as particular, historically changing language practices in such modes of speech as literature, criticism and politics. He formulates this sense of class as. A collective mode of being, feeling, acting of that part of a group of people, similarly circumstanced, which has become conscious of its own position and of its own attitude to this position.
It is a group conscious not only of its specific, particular shared circumstances but conscious also of its sense of these circumstances.
This shared consciousness is made possible by what he describes as. The changes bear witness to a general change in our characteristic ways of thinking about our common life: about our social, political and economic institutions; about the purposes which these institutions are designed to embody; and about the relations to these institutions and purposes of our activities in learning, education, and the arts. The uses to which the shared language s are put provide the grounds for understandability, for the communicable sense they make.
Further, in seeking to value shared language and the changing meanings of its constitutive sequences of words, Williams invokes tradition as the location of the general patterns of change in the use and meaning of words like class. One word in particular encapsulates and organizes class and all other key words amongst which it is itself included : the word culture. In its meaning are concentrated.
It …is a record of…important and continuing reactions to…changes in…social, economic, and political life… I n its structure of meanings, is a wide and general movement in thought and feeling exemplified in the complex and radical response…to the new problems of social class. And this is so, not only on historical grounds, but also because.
Even within a society in which a particular class is dominant, it is evidently possible both for members of other classes to contribute to the common stock, and for such contributions to be unaffected by or be in opposition to the ideas and values of the dominant class The area of a culture, it would seem, is usually proportionate to the area of a language rather than to the area of a class… people who share a common language share the inheritance of an intellectual and literary tradition which is necessarily and constantly revalued with every shift in experience.
The particularity of these experiential shifts are in a reflexive relation with tradition which is mediated through language, and eventually produces changes in the institutional structures of social order.
Williams both formulates and makes possible detailed analysis of these generative processes of social change through his concept of structures of feeling Filmer, Culler, J. Eagleton, T.
New Left Books, London. Filmer, P. Lawrence, D. Leavis, F. Singh , Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Loewenthal, L. Macherey, P. Wall , London, Routledge. Williams, R. James is a Nottingham based writer. He was the literature editor of Leftlion magazine for 13 years. He loves books. Do you perchance have an email address for Paul Filmer? Thank you, William Lanouette. Like Like. But contact Malcolm Gray who is the Chair of the D. Lawrence Society as he may have it as he helped organise the conference.
According to this widespread conception, literature is a dispensable activity, no doubt lofty and useful for cultivating sensitivity and good manners, but essentially an entertainment, an adornment that only people with time for recreation can afford. But we would not have learned to see, behind these extremes of behavior that are prohibited by the norms of our culture, essential characteristics of the human condition. Log files do not capture personal information but do capture the user's IP address, which is automatically recognized by our web servers. Home Social sciences Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps Literature and Society. Changes in society can also be seen through the arts, and the roles of women are not exceptions to this insight.
You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. He insists, further , that it: should interpret what seems most removed from society as the most valid key to the understanding of society and especially of its defects…Of particular importance…is the…analysis of the social ambience of the intimate and the private, the revealing of the sociological determination of such phenomena as love, friendship, the relationship to nature, self-image, and the like…Literature teaches us to understand the success or failure of the socialization of individuals in concrete historical moments and situations.
The two principal characters, Hepburn and Hannele are being driven into the mountains: At a house on a knoll the driver sounded his horn, and out rushed children crying Papa! The consciousness expressed there, Leavis says, is precisely a consciousness that we have to define as wholly incompatible with snobbery or any related form of class-feeling.
Hepburn and Hanele have taken shelter from a rainstorm in the uppermost hotel on their trip into the mountains, where they sat in the restaurant drinking hot coffee and milk, and watching the maidens in cotton frocks and aprons and bare arms, and the fair youths with maidenly necks and huge voracious boots, and the many Jews of the wrong sort and the wrong shape. This intratextual device is sustained as Hepburn and Hanele await the motor car at the conclusion of their expedition, watching the tourists and the trippers and the motor-car men.
He formulates this sense of class as A collective mode of being, feeling, acting of that part of a group of people, similarly circumstanced, which has become conscious of its own position and of its own attitude to this position. In its meaning are concentrated questions directly raised by the great historical changes which the changes in industry, democracy, and class, in their own way, represent, and to which the changes in art are a closely related response.
And this is so, not only on historical grounds, but also because Even within a society in which a particular class is dominant, it is evidently possible both for members of other classes to contribute to the common stock, and for such contributions to be unaffected by or be in opposition to the ideas and values of the dominant class The area of a culture, it would seem, is usually proportionate to the area of a language rather than to the area of a class… people who share a common language share the inheritance of an intellectual and literary tradition which is necessarily and constantly revalued with every shift in experience.
Wall , London, Routledge Williams, R. Like this: Like Loading Published by James Walker.
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Contributors Christopher P. Youngju Ryu is associate professor of Korean literature at the University of Michigan. Robert E. Buswell, Jr. We are using cookies to give you the best experience on our website.
Free Essay: Literature is intimately related to society. Viewed as a whole, a body of literature is part of the entire culture of a people. The. Literature means something that is written for refreshing and inspiring the mind. It records the thoughts and feelings of great minds. It attracts in two.
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